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A NOMINAL ASSET VALUE-BASED APPROACH FOR LAND READJUSTMENT AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

 

Yomralioglu, T., (1993), “A Nominal Asset Value-Based Approach for Land Readjustment and Its Implementation Using Geographical Information System”, PhD Thesis, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. David Parker, Department of Surveying, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, pp.1-327, England.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Land readjustment is a planning tool to assist in systematic urbanization.  The process aims to take rural or unplanned urban land, usually irregularly subdivided, and re-allocate it, in the required balance, for public and private use according to town planning requirements.It has great advantages in solving the land-use problem in urban areas but current land readjustment implementations are limited in many ways: for example, there are technical limitations in handling the wealth of data, economical limitations in compensation for acquire land, and social limitations in minimizing the inconvenience and conceived injustices. To maximize the benefits from land readjustment and to establish an ongoing land information system, a nominal asset value-based land readjustment model called LARES has been developed and implemented using ARC/INFO GIS.  This model specifically deals with the land valuation, decision-making, and information management issues of the current land readjustment applications. While the objective of land valuation is to determine market value, in this approach, a nominal asset value is used to represent a land parcel's worth when compared to others.  Many land valuation factors defining the economical, environment and spatial value of land parcels are analyzed before and after the land readjustment project to ensure equality in land redistribution.  Various equations and algorithms for land valuation and distribution analysis are investigated and implemented. The model has been tested with a case study.  Data for land valuation analysis are derived from property, land-use, thematic, and topographical maps, and from other related textual records.  Using GIS functionality, spatial analysis is performed in order to determine land parcel asset values by the combination of mathematical analysis and subjective judgement. The thesis describes the design, development and implementation of a nominal asset value-based approach to land readjustment for urban land development.  It concludes that this approach improves the qualitative and quantitative ability of land readjustment process.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS    

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

 

CHAPTER  1 : 

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Introduction   1

1.2        Problem definition    5

1.3        Research objectives      7

1.4        Methodology   9

1.5        Thesis outline   10

 

CHAPTER  2 :

LAND READJUSTMENT

2.1        Introduction       12

2.2        Urban development  13

2.3        Land use control mechanism  14

            2.3.1     Zoning  15

            2.3.2     Subdivision . .         15

            2.3.3     Building regulations .  . .       16

            2.3.4     Approval by government agencies . .       17

            2.3.5     Urban planning . . .       17

2.4        Land management methods .  .        18

2.5        Historical overview of land readjustment .        19

2.6        Definition of land readjustment .         22

2.7        Objectives of land readjustment .         25

2.8        Procedures in land readjustment .  .       25

            2.8.1     Decision of the authorities .  .       26

            2.8.2     Land survey of project area .  .       26

            2.8.3     Calculation . .  .       28

            2.8.4     Land redistribution . .        30

            2.8.5     Final registration . . .       32

2.9        Characteristics of land readjustment .  .       32

2.10      Advantages of land readjustment .         34

2.11      Shortcomings of land readjustment .  .       36

2.12      Requirements for land readjustment .  .       39

2.13      Selected land readjustment applications .        40

            2.13.1   Australia . .  .       40

            2.13.2   Taiwan . .  .       42

            2.13.3   Japan . .  . .       45

            2.13.4   Germany . .         48

            2.13.5   Turkey . .         50

2.14      Chapter summary . .  .       51

 

CHAPTER  3 :

A NEW APPROACH TO LAND READJUSTMENT

3.1        Introduction  . .  . .       52

3.2        Requirements to improve land readjustment process .       53

            3.2.1     Land valuation . . .       53

            3.2.2     Decision making . .        55

            3.2.3     Information management  .         56

3.3        Development of a value-based land readjustment model .       57

            3.3.1     The aim  . .  .       57

            3.3.2     Land valuation analysis .  .       58

                  3.3.2.1  Classification of land valuation factors   .       61

                        3.3.2.1.1  Use of the land parcel . .       61

                        3.3.2.1.2  Characteristics of neighbourhood         62

                        3.3.2.1.3  Location of the property .        63

                        3.3.2.1.4  Site . .  .       64

                  3.3.2.2  Factor selection .  . .       65

                  3.3.2.3  Determination of a land parcel value  .       66

                        3.3.2.3.1  Formulation of the land valuation factors        69

                        3.3.2.3.2  Calculation of the value parameters .       82

                        3.3.2.3.3  Determination of the weights  .       86

            3.3.3     The process of decision making .        93

                  3.3.3.1  Land subdivision .  . .       93

                  3.3.3.2  Land distribution .  .        94

            3.3.4     The procedure of information management         96

                  3.3.4.1  Data input . . .       96

                  3.3.4.2  Data analysis . . .       97

                  3.3.4.3  Data output . . .       99

3.4        Chapter summary . .  .       99

 

 

CHAPTER  4 :

AN OVERVIEW OF LAND-RELATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS

4.1        Introduction  . .  .        102

4.2        Classification of information systems . .       103

4.3        Geographical information systems  .  .       105

            4.3.1     Definition of GIS  . .        106

            4.3.2     Characteristics of GIS .         108

            4.3.3     The functional elements of GIS . .       109

                  4.3.3.1  Data acquisition . . .       109

                  4.3.3.2  Data management .         111

                  4.3.3.3  Data retrieval . . .       111

                  4.3.3.4  Data manipulation and analysis   . .       112

                  4.3.3.5  Data display . . .       113

            4.3.4     Spatial data models in GIS .         113

                  4.3.4.1  Vector spatial data .         115

                  4.3.4.2  Raster spatial data .         116

                  4.3.4.3  Raster versus vector .  .       116

            4.3.5     Database models . . .       118

                  4.3.5.1  Hierarchical data model .  .       120

                  4.3.5.2  Network data model .         120

                  4.3.5.3  Relational data model .         120

            4.3.6     GIS applications . . .       121

4.4        Land information systems . . .       124

            4.4.1     Definition of LIS . .        124

            4.4.2     Management objectives of LIS . .       125

            4.4.3     Parcel-based LIS:  The Cadastre . .       127

                  4.4.3.1        Components of the cadastre  . .       128

                  4.4.3.2        Classification of parcel-based LIS  .       130

                        4.4.3.2.1        Legal cadastre .  .       130

                        4.4.3.2.2        Fiscal cadastre .         130

                        4.4.3.2.3        Multipurpose cadastre  . .       131

                  4.4.3.3        Role of the cadastre .  .       132

                        4.4.3.3.1        Merits of the cadastre . .       132

                        4.4.3.3.2        Impediments of the cadastre         135

4.5        Chapter summary . .  .       136

 

CHAPTER  5 :

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT : 

The development of LARES (LAnd REadjustment System)

5.1        Introduction  . .  . .       137

5.2        Integration of land readjustment with GIS .        138

5.3        Choice of a GIS tool . .         140

5.4        Software organisation . .         140

            5.4.1     Data processing . . .       141

            5.4.2     Customisation . .  .       143

            5.4.3     Storage of data . .        144

            5.4.4     Data check and correction .         145

            5.4.5     The sequence of polygon segments .        146

5.5        The modular design of LARES .  . .       148

            5.5.1     Land subdivision:  The creation of new lots         148

            5.5.2     Land valuation factor analysis .  .       151

            5.5.3     Calculation of parcel values .         160

            5.5.4     Parcel distribution . . .       160

            5.5.5     Outputs . .         162

5.6        Modification of LARES . .         162

            5.6.1     Valuation factors . .        163

            5.6.2     Factor weights . .  .       164

            5.6.3     Menu changes . .  .       164

5.7        Chapter summary . .  .       165

 

CHAPTER  6 :

DESCRIPTION OF LARES

6.1        Introduction  . .  . .       166

6.2        Design criteria . .         166

            6.2.1     Hardware . .  .       167

            6.2.2     Software . .         167

            6.2.3     Digitising . .         168

            6.2.4     Organising attribute data .         171

            6.2.5     User interface . .  .       172

6.3        File organisation in LARES . . .       173

            6.3.1     Directory structure . . .       173

            6.3.2     Data file management .  . .       174

            6.3.3     AML files . .  .       176

            6.3.4     Menu files . .  .       177

            6.3.5     Execution files . .  .       178

6.4        The components of LARES . . .       178

            6.4.1     Arc modules . .  .       179

            6.4.2     Subdivision . .  .       179

            6.4.3     Valuation . .         180

            6.4.4     Distribution . .  .       181

            6.4.5     Query . .         182

6.5        Attribute query . .         183

            6.5.1     Coverage information .  .        183

            6.5.2     Query of two-dimensional information  . .       184

            6.5.3     Displaying three-dimensional views .        189

6.6        Chapter summary . .  .       192

 

CHAPTER  7 :

A Case Study:  IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING OF LARES

7.1        Introduction  . .  . .       193

7.2        Implementation concerns . .        194

7.3        An overview of Turkish land registration system  . .       195

            7.3.1     General  . .  .       195

            7.3.2     The cadastral system in Turkey . .       196

            7.3.3     Land acquisition methods and issues  . .       197

                  7.3.3.1  Land compensation .         199

                  7.3.3.2  Voluntary Method .  .        200

                  7.3.3.3  Land readjustment .         202

            7.3.4     Land readjustment system .  .       203

7.4        The study area . .         207

7.5        Data gathering . .         209

            7.5.1     Digitising of required map layers . .       210

            7.5.2     Data transfer from AutoCAD to ARC/INFO  .       210

            7.5.3     Topology creation . . .       211

            7.5.4     The correction of topology errors . .       212

            7.5.5     Input of descriptive data .         213

            7.5.6     Formulation of land parcel IDs .         214

            7.5.7     Exporting of input coverages .         216

7.6        Data Processing . .         216

            7.6.1     Creation of new site lots  .  .       217

            7.6.2     Land valuation analysis .         217

            7.6.3     Determination of parcel values .  .       221

            7.6.4     Distribution of new land parcels . .       222

            7.6.5     Final reports . .  .       222

7.7        Assessment of the implementation .         223

            7.7.1     The selection and implementation of different factors . 225

            7.7.2     Statistical analysis of the case study results  .       229

                  7.7.2.1  Correlation between the factor values  .       229

                  7.7.2.2  Test of significance on asset value  .        232

                  7.7.2.3  Testing the validity of the developed model  .       236

7.8        Chapter summary . .  .       238

 

CHAPTER  8 :

CONCLUSIONS

8.1        Introduction  . .  . .       239

8.2        Research summary . .  .       240

8.3        General discussion . .         241

8.4        Results and conclusions . .        246

8.5        Suggestions for further investigations .         248

8.6        Concluding remarks . .         251

 

REFERENCES           . .  . .       252

 

APPENDIX A : 

CALCULATION PROCESS IN LAND READJUSTMENT  . .       262

APPENDIX B : 

A SURVEY:  DETERMINATION OF LAND VALUATION FACTOR WEIGHTS        267

APPENDIX C : 

CREATION OF FEATURE ATTRIBUTE TABLES . .       282

APPENDIX D : 

FILE STRUCTURE IN LARES . .  .       285

APPENDIX E : 

DATA LOADING TO ARC/INFO TIN . . .       292

APPENDIX F : 

THE IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS . . .       295

APPENDIX G : 

AN OVERVIEW OF ARC/INFO . .        315

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